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SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON INGREDIENTS

1. Salai Guggulu (Boswellia serrata)

 

Salai guggul also known as Olibanum, is an Oleo gum resin from Boswellia Serrata containing essential oil, gum, and resin. The therapeutic value of salai guggulu predominantly resides in its oleo-resin portion, which possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic antidiarrhoeal, antihyperlipidemic, anti-asthmatic, and analgesic activity. In addition, it has hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory activity as well.

The study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of different fractions of B. Serrata. The effect of different fractions of B.Serrata was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema, acetic acid-induced writhing response, formalin-induced pain, hot plate, and tail flick method for studying anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. respectively. The different fractions of B.Serrata essential oil, gum, resin, oleo-resin, and oleo-gum resin significantly reduce carrageenan-induced Inflammation in rats and show analgesic activity.

Antimicrobial Activity

A study conducted by Rajendra CE al, to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of B. Serrata revealed that the methanolic extract of the drug had a potent antimicrobial activity.

Ismail et al, reported that the resin extract of Boswellia serrata powder confirmed antimicrobial activity in different concentrations against gram-negative and gram-positive microbes. They observed the inhibition zone and compared it with ciprofloxacin

 

2. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia)

 

Guduchi is widely used in veterinary folk medicine /ayurvedic systems of medicine for its general tonic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-allergic, and diabetic properties. The plant is used in ayurvedic medicine as Rasayanas to improve the immune system and the body’s resistance against infections.

Another study showed that the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

In another study. the extract of aerial parts of Tinospora cordifolia produced a significant increase in pain threshold in hotplate and tail flick tests in a dose-dependent manner. In acetic acid-induced writhing the extract produced significant inhibition of writhing reaction.

Freshly prepared extracts are used in the studies mentioned above for evaluating the analgesic activity. But a crude extract of Tinospora is already available commercially in the market with the brand name guduchi which is used as an immunomodulator.

Antioxidant and calcium attenuating actions of aqueous and alcoholic extract of T. Cordifolia contribute to attenuating sciatica pain associated with sciatica nerve root ligation.

  1. Cordifolia contains alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids in the aerial part of the plant. So the observed analgesic activity may be attributed to any of these phytoconstituents. There are also reports of the analgesic activity of flavinoids which is mediated by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins

Prostaglandins sensitize the peripheral nerve endings. Moreover, substances like bradykinin, and substance P(potent mediators of pain) are released during inflammation. Anti-inflammatory agents like NSAIDs are used as analgesics and decrease pain by decreasing various mediators of inflammation, especially PG.

 

3. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

 

Ashwagandha, an Ayurvedic herb used extensively in traditional Indian medicine to treat arthritis, painful swelling, ulcers, fever, diabetes, and several other ailments.

Effect of Ashwagandha on osteoarthritis

The use of Ashwagandha also called Indian ginseng, winter cherry. In Ayurvedic medicine it is considered a rasayana herb, meaning it is believed to rejuvenate the body and promote the health of all tissue.

Conventional medicine categorizes it as an adaptogen, which is a natural plant compound that may help the body adapt to stress and prevent damage.

Research has shown that the numerous benefits of Ashwagandha include anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, pain-relieving, and antistress properties.

Across human and animal research Ashwagandha also appears to reduce knee joint pain, decrease swelling, slow degradation of joints, and improve pain and overall mobility of the osteoarthritic joints.

Ashwagandha helps with chronic pain

The pain-relieving benefits of ashwagandha have been consistently demonstrated.

In mice research, withaferin The main active compound in ashwagandha root extract improved postoperative pain and chronic pain associated with nerve damage.

 

Likewise, the use of Ashwagandha leaves in a review of a clinical human trial with 42 patients suggests that ashwagandha blocks pain receptors in the brain, which could reduce osteoarthritis pain and disability

Ashwagandha extract significantly reduces the activity of collagenase enzymes, which break down joint cartilage, in research using mice.

Other research showed promising effects of ashwagandha in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and it may even improve joint pain in people with viral infections like the chikungunya virus.

 

4. Shunti (Gingiber Officinalis)

 

Ginger has been cultivated since the ancient period as a source of medicinal plant in China as well as in other countries all over the world for use as a spice and for therapeutic benefits. Evidence reported that consumption of ginger aids in relieving pain in joints associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

Its main properties are anti-inflammatory & analgesic effects.

The anti-inflammatory effect of ginger was scientifically proved first by Kiuchi et al. in 1982. They isolated four new different compounds from ginger and all showed potential inhibitory effects to reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which is the key to inflammation. In another study carried out in 1992, they found that ginger showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting not only prostaglandin but also leukotriene biosynthesis. A diarylheptanoid having a catechol group showed activity against 5-lipoxygenase

which further inhibited leukotriene biosynthesis which can produce an anti-inflammatory effect. Another constituent, namely, yakuchinone A, inhibited prostaglandin production, which can again result in an anti-inflammatory effect.

The activity of Zingiber officinale as an anti-inflammatory agent was investigated by Thomson and his group in rats. Experimental rats were treated with aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale either orally or intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks. Though at low doses ginger did not reduce prostaglandin E2 concentrations, at high doses it significantly lowered PGE2 levels. Therefore, ginger could reduce inflammation associated with RA.

Recently, an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of ginger was carried out by Ribel-Madsen et al. where they isolated synovial cells from synovial membrane or synovial fluid. Cells were stimulated by TNF-a. Ginger-treated cells showed a similar inhibitory effect to betamethasone by inhibiting the production of cytokines IL- 1 and IL-6 indicating an anti-inflammatory effect.

It is known that 5-lipoxygenase is one of the major key elements of inflammation, and reduction of this factor aids in reducing inflammation. Flynn et al. reported that gingerol and gingerdione signific- antly showed analgesic and anti-inflamatory activities by inhibiting PGE2 synthesis.

The analgesic effect of the ginger extract was evaluated in 261 patients affected with osteoarthritis of the knee by Yoshikawa’s group. Among all patients, 247 (94.6%) patients claimed to have a reduction in pain indicating a potential analgesic effect due to the administration of extract of Zingiber officinale.

 

5. Haridhra(Curcuma longa)

 

Haridra or Haldi is a therapeutic treasure commonly found in the Indian kitchen. Turmeric is scientifically known as Curcuma Longa. It is helpful against body aches, skin problems, and even diseases like diabetes. It comes mainly from the tuberous roots of the turmeric plants, which are yellowish-orange in color.

Curcumin is a natural compound with great potential for disease treatment. A large number of studies have proved that curcumin has a variety of biological activities, among which the anti-inflammat- ory effect is a significant feature of it. Inflammation is a complex and pervasive physiological and pathological process.

The physiological and pathological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, COVID-19, and other research focus diseases are not clear yet, and they are considered to be related to inflammation.

The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin can effectively improve the symptoms of these diseases and is expected to be a candidate drug for the treatment of repeated diseases. This paper mainly reviews the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin, the inflammatory pathological mechanism of related diseases, the regulatory effect of curcumin on these, and the latest research results on the improvement of curcumin pharmacokinetics. It is beneficial to the further study of curcumin and provides new ideas and insights for the development of curcumin anti-inflam-mandatory preparations.

The significant anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin has attracted a lot of researchers’ interest and is considered to be one of the natural compounds with the greatest potential in the treatment of diseases. The anti-inflammatory mechanism and therapeutic effect of curcumin are the research hotspots. This paper will review the current studies on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin, curcumin in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, and other diseases, and analyze the relevant studies on improving pharmacokinetics, to provide suggestions for further research and application of curcumin in anti-inflammatory effect.

Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Curcumin

The inflammatory pathway consists of four parts: Inducers, sensors, mediators, and effectors The physiological and pathological mechanisms of inflammation caused by different inflammatory triggers are different and have not yet been clarified. In general, the anti-inflammatory effects of drugs mainly include acting on receptors and signaling pathways, regulating the response of target tissues to inflammatory mediators; and reversing the effect of the medium on the target tissue Producing anti-inflammatory mediators and so curcumin exerts antiinflammatory effects  by regulating inflammatory signaling pathways and inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators. Curcumin has significant anti-inflammat- ory effects, and a large number of pre-clinical or clinical researches have studied its effect on inflammatory diseases, among them, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, psoriasis, depression, atherosclerosis, and COVID-19 are the focus of research hotspots.

 

6. Kulanjan (Alpinia galanga)

 

Galanga is also known as Kulanjan, and Dhumarashmi and is traditionally used to treat pain, inflammation, stomach ache, microbial infection, and enhance immunity. It is a potent antioxidant, anti-platelet, and anti-cancer agent.

Galangal root may reduce disease-causing inflammation, as it contains HMP, a naturally occurring phytochemical that test-tube and animal studies have suggested boasts potent anti-inflammatory properties.

Plants of the Zingiberaceae family, including galangal, appear to mildly reduce pain, a common symptom of inflammation (27).

For instance, in one 6-week study of 261 people with osteoarthritis of the knee, 63% of those who took a ginger and galangal extract daily reported a reduction in knee pain when standing, compared with 50% of those taking a placebo (28).

Alpinia galanga is an ayurvedic herb recognized and used across many traditional medicine systems for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study scientifically validates the potential anti-nociceptive action of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga by chemical, neurogenic, and inflammatory nociception model in mice followed by identification of potential lead compound by computational analysis.

 

7. Guggulu (Commiphora wightii)

Guggulu is a resin that has anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects.

The results of Several Studies confirm the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activity of Guggul. The 50% aqueous methanolic extract was found to exhibit an Anti-inflammatory effect on adjuvant-induced air pouch granuloma in mice

Several animal studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Guggulu extract in standard Osteoarthritis (OA) models. The authors had Conducted both animal & clinical investigation of Guggulu For OA Before this study The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Guggulu for the reduction of pain, Stiffness, and other symptoms that arise from OA

Hypolipidemic Activity of Guggulu

Clinical studies on weight showed its hypolipidemic effect and the outcome of change in lipid profile upon its administration showed a significant decrease In total cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol after treatment with Guggulu.