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SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON INGREDIENTS

1.Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

Withania somnifera is a very reverend herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana (tonic). It is used for various kinds of disease processes & especially as a nervine tonic. Considering these facts many scientific studies were carried out and its adaptogenic/anti-stress activities were studied in detail. In experimental models, it increased the stamina of rats during swimming endurance tests and prevented adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produced by swimming stress. Pretreatment with withania somnifera showed significant protection against stress-induced gastric ulcers.

It has a cognition-promoting effect and was useful in children with memory deficit and old age people with loss of memory. It was also found useful in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s disease.

It has an anxiolytic effect and improves energy levels and mitochondrial health.

It is one of the most important herbs of Ayurveda used for millennia as a Rasayana is described as an herbal or metallic preparation that promotes a youthful state of physical and mental health & expands happiness. These types of remedies are given to small children as tonics and are also taken by the middle-aged and elderly to increase longevity. Among the ayurvedic Rasayana herbs, Ashwagandha holds the most prominent place. It is known as the “sattvic kaha Rasayana “Herb. (Changhadi, 1938) Most of the Rasayana herbs are adaptogenic /anti-stress agents.

Ashwagandha is commonly available as a choorna, a finely sieved powder that can be mixed with water, ghee or honey. It enhances the function of the brain & nervous system and improves memory.

Scientific studies on Ashwagandha Adaptogenic/antistress effect: 

The extensive Studies on the biological model, of animals for the adaptogenic/anti_stress properties of Ashwagandha (Abbas and Singh, 2006, Kalsi et al, 1987; Singh et al 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982, 1993 a, 1983b 2003, (Singh, 1995b,2006,2008) have shown it to be effective in  increasing the stamina(physical endurance) and preventing stress-induced gastric ulcer, carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) induced hepatotoxicity, and mortality

Ashwagandha has similar anti_stress activity in rats (Archana & Namasivayam 1999)An aqueous suspension of Ashwagandha root was used at 100 mg/kg / oral dosage The results indicate a significant increase in the plasma corticosterone level, phagocytic index, and avidity index in rats subjected to cold swimming stress In the rats pretreated with the drug these parameters were near control values and an increase in the swimming time was observed.

The results indicate that w.somnifera used in the crude form is a potent Antistress agent. The results of the above study lend support to the hypothesis of tonics, Vitalizers, and rejuvenators of ayurveda which indicate the clinical use of Somnifera in the prevention and treatment of many stress-induced diseases like arteriosclerosis, premature aging, hypertension, and malignancy

Effect of Central Nervous System Cognition Promoting effect

Ashwagandha is a well-known Ayurvedic rasayana and belongs to a subgroup of rasayanas known as medhya rasayana. Medhya typically refers to the mind & mental/intellectual capacity. This medhya rasayana like Ashwagandha, is used to promote intellect and memory. The cognition-promoting effect of medhya rasayanas is best seen in children with memory deficits, or when memory is compromised following a head injury or a prolonged illness and in old age (Singh and udupa1993) 

 

2.Amla (Emblica officinalis) 

The fruits of Amalaki are frequently used in Ayurvedic preparation because they boost immunity to illnesses. It is also a key ingredient in hepatoprotective  &  rejuvenate formulae. Among anti-aging medications, Amalaki holds the top Spot. It is the greatest herb for tissue regeneration.

Biological and pharmacological activities of Amalaki based on modern research

Immunomodulatory activity

Amalaki can activate the immune system, which is a powerful and protective defense against newly emerging infectious diseases The immune-modulatory action of Triphala on Albino rats is evaluated to demonstrate this feature of umbilical Officinalis. When taken orally, Triphala appears to enhance neutrophil activity in vaccinated rats, and it considerably lessens the effect of stress-induced inhibition of neutrophil activity (A Bhattacharya, 2000). Amalaki has mild cytoprotective and immunostimulant properties.

Anti-aging

Amalaki is one of the Strongest antioxidant herbs in Ayurveda because it contains low molecular wt hydrolysable tannins, which slow down the aging process. Amalaki’s high concentration of vitamin C and flavonoids prevents harmful free radicals that accelerate cell aging in addition to enhancing nutrition 

Memory-enhancing activity

E officinalis churna has proved to be a useful remedy for memory Improvement of young and aged and in the management of Alzheimer’s disease and reversed the amnesia induced by Scopolamine and diazepam due to its multifarious, beneficial effects such as memory improvement and reversal of memory deficit (Nosalova, 2003).

Amlachana produced a dose-dependent

Improvement in memory of young and aged rats It reversed the amnesia by scopolamine and diazepam. Amla churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer’s, disease due to its multifarious beneficial effects such as memory improvement and reversal of  memory deficit (D.M. A jaya weera 1980) 

Neuroprotective Activity

Amalaki causes a reduction OF INOS & “Cox-z expression levels by inhibiting NF-KB activation thus reducing the elevated expression level of Bax which is a proapoptotic protein (M. Sankaran 2013) Pretreatment ē hydro-alcoholic extract of Amalaki fruit significantly increased the latency of Seizure as compared with the vehicle-treated group.

 

3.Mulethi (glycyrrhiza glabra) 

The plant has several pharmacological activities. They are antibacterial activity, Cerebro protective effect, memory enhancing activity,  antioxidant potential activity, hair growth promoting activity, and also. It gives alertness and intellect promoting the decoction of the root is a good wash for Falling and greying hair

Best licorice extracts for Skin

Minimize the products of tyrosinase to combat discoloration. The product of melanin is a complicated process but at the heart of the matter is an enzyme known as tyrosinase. Licorice extract inhibits the production of tyrosinase in turn inhibiting the production of dark spots. 

Removes excess melanin, licorice extracts brighten the skin in another way too. It Contains liquiritin, an active compound that helps to disperse and remove existing Melanin in the skin.in other words not only can it help to prevent new spots from forming, but it can also fade existing ones.

Acts as a potent antioxidant: Like many other plant-based extracts, licorice contains a flavonoid, an antioxidant-rich component that decreases reactive oxygen species, which both age and discolor the skin.

Offers anti-inflammatory benefits. While the flavonoid is anti-inflammatory in and of Itself, there’s yet another molecule licochalcone A, which inhibits two inflammatory markers that trigger the inflammatory Cascade.

 

4.Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus)

Shatavari has also been successfully used by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorder inflammation and certain infectious diseases. Shatavari may be translated as – “100 spouses “, implying its ability to increase fertility and vitality.

Shatavari is the main Ayurvedic rejuvenating tonic for the female as is withania for the male A. racemosus is a well-known Ayurvedic rasayana that prevents aging, increases longevity, imparts immunity improves mental function vigor and adds vitality to the body and it is also used in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, tumors, inflammation, neuropathy hepatopathy Reports indicate that the pharmacological activities of A. racemosus root extract include antiulcer, antioxidant and antidiabetic and immunomodulatory activities. The beneficial effect of the root of A. racemosus is suggested in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, Inflammation, neuropathy hepatopathy, & Certain infectious diseases.

A racemosus is a Steroidal saponins (Shatavari Sl-lV)that are present in roots. Shatavarins IV has been reported to display significant activity as an inhibitor of core “Golgi enzymes” transferase in cell-free assays and recently to exhibit Immuno-modulation activity against Specific T-dependent antigens in immunocompromised animals.

 Adaptogenic activity

Aqueous extract was administered orally to experimental animals of biological physical and chemical stressors. A model of cisplatin-induced alteration in gastrointestinal motility was used to test the ability of the extract to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective Of the direction of pathological change  The extract reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying and also normalized Cisplatin-induced intestinal hypermotility.

Effect on CNS

Neither Stimulant nor depressant action of lactase on C.N.s has been reported In albino mice. Shatavari did not produce catalepsy in experimental rats, even with massive oral doses, suggesting that its action may be outside the blood-brain barriers, similar to that of metoclopramide. 

Immunomodulatory activity

Intra-abdominal sepsis is the major cause of mortality following trauma and bowel Surgery. The immunomodulating property of A. racemosus has been shown to protect rats and mice against experimental-induced abdominal Sepsis. oral administration of decoction of the powdered root of A.racemosus has been reported to produce leukocytosis and predominant neutrophils along ē enhanced phagocytic activity of the macrophages and polymorphs: Percentage mortality of A.racemosus treated animal was found to significantly reduced while survival rate was comparable to that of the group treated with a combination of metronidazole and gentamicin. Since A-racemosus is reported to be devoid of antibacterial action, So protection – offered by A.racemosus against Sepsis by altering the function of macrophages, indicating its possible immunomodulatory property

 Enhanced memory and protects against amnesia

MAR. also Significantly reversed Sco-polyamine and sodium nitrite _induced an increase in transfer latency on elevated plus maze indicating anti-amnesic activity.  Further, MAR dose-dependently inhibited acetylcholinesterase enzyme in Specific Brain regions. Thus MAR showed nootropic and anti-amnesic activities in the models tested and these effects may probably be medicated through augmentation of cholinergic activity. Post-trial administration of convolvulus pluricaulis (C. Pluricaulis) and A racemosus extract demonstrated a significant decrease in latency during retention trials. Hippocampal regions associated with the learning and memory function showed.

A dose-dependent increase in ache activity in carbonic anhydrase 3 areas with c. pluricaulis treatment. The underlying mechanism of these actions of A.racemosus and C. pluricaulis may be attributed to their antioxidant neuroprotective and cholinergic properties.

 

5.Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris)

Gokshuar’s pharmacological activities are Anti-inflammatory activity, Immuno-modulatory activity, analgesic Activity, CNS activity, and antispasmodic activity.

Anti-inflammatory activity

The extract of Tribulus terrestris showed inhibition of rat paw volume in carrageenan-induced, inflammation in rats.

Immunomodulatory activity

An alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Tribulus Terrestris exhibited a significant dose-dependent increase in humoral antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity response, indicating increased specific immune response.

Antispasmodic activity

The lyophilized Saponin mixture of the plant exhibited a significant decrease in Peristaltic movement of rabbit jejunum preparation in a dose-dependent manner.

Absorption enhance

It is necessary to increase the intestinal permeability of drugs to improve their bioavailability. Some drugs are potent but due to the less absorption, they have less effectiveness.  However the experiment indicated that the drug  (Tribulus terrestris) can enhance the absorption of metformin HCL in a goat intestine.

CNS activity

Rasayana gana tablet which contains three herbs, viz. Tinospora cordifolia (Stem), Emblica Officinalis (fruit), and Tribulus terrestris (fruit & root), Present in equal quantities in the tablet showed antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in Swiss Albino mice due to harmine a Beta-carboline alkaloid Harmine is an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase which helps to increase the level of dopamine In the brain

 

6.Shilajathu( Asphaltum)

Shilajathu is one such compound that has been used in Ayurveda for centuries as Rasayana. Rasayana is a class of herbals as well as mineral drugs or formulations that are utilized to improve general well-being by invigorating immunity or vyadhikshamatva. Various studies suggest that Rasayana therapy acts by modulating the neuro-endocrine immune system, In turn rejuvenating the complete functional dynamic of the Organ by delaying aging and enhancing intelligence,  memory, strength, youth, luster sweetness voice & vigor.

Acclimatisation, and immunostimulation

Acclimatization is a major problem for people who go to high altitudes for the 1st  time. Shilajit is very helpful in Improving the immunity of the body as it activates macrophages and splenocytes and hence has been shown to have adaptogenic properties. Thus it is very helpful in acclimatizing to the environment in hilly areas and has also been shown to reduce tumour growth. Shilajit also has anti-allergic activity against histamine releases and has been Seen to induce degranulation of mast cells.

Thus It can also be used in the treatment of allergic conditions.

Ashtanga Hridaya also states that it is the best rejuvenator. Hence, shilajit is a herbomineral formulation that acts as a panacea for altitude-related problems. 

High-altitude cerebral edema & Dementia (HACE) 

HACE is the result of swelling in the brain tissue due to low atmospheric pressure. Symptoms include headache, loss of coordination weakness, and decreased level of consciousness including disorientation, and loss of memory. hallucination. Psychotic behavior and coma. Shilajit can be very useful in the treatment of HACE-like conditions of the brain as it maintains the extracellular volume. in the body through its diuretic action, and removes the excess fluid and Toxins from the Brain as well as the body. It improves memory and enhances Confidence for better handling of stress. It also has very good antioxidant properties

Dementia is one of the common problems faced by mountaineers, which occurs due to the degradation of neurons, either by hypoxia or by Free radicals or toxins in the brain. Shilajit may play a potential role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases as it is an immunostimulant and is very effective in treating immune, nervous, and urinary disorders. Jaiswal et al. revealed its anxiolytic activity and its usefulness in the treatment of disinclination to work: Shilajit is also used as a tonic in the ayurvedic. system of medicine due to the presence of humic acid, fulvic acid, coumarins, and triterpenes

 

7.Kaunch beej(Mucuna pruriens )

The pharmacological evidence reports that mucuna pruriens is one of the major constituents in polyherbal extract formulations for treating different ailments.

Anti-parkinson’s activity

Parkinsonism was treated by the administration of powdered seed Of m. pruriens containing 4 to 6%. levodopa.In a clinical study the contribution of L- DOPA in the recovery of PD followed by Ayurveda medication. Katzenschlager et al revealed that 30g mucuna seed powder preparation has considerably faster action in treating PD  patients than conventional standard drugs namely levodopa or carbidopa and Suggested that natural sources of L-DOPA might possess advantages over conventional drugs in the long-term management of PD.

Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder significantly increased the brain mitochondrial complex -1 activity but did not affect the total monoamine oxidase activity (in vitro) as having Nicotine adenine dinucleotide(NADH) and coenzyme 2-10 in the cotyledon powder which is shown to have a therapeutic benefit in Parkinson’s disease, unlike synthetic levodopa treatment. M.Pruriens cotyledon powder treatment  Significantly restored the endogenous Levodopa, dopamine norepinephrine and serotonin content in the substantia anigra clinical study confirmed the efficacy. Of them. pruriens seeds in the management of Parkinson’s disease by their L-Dopa content.

Antidepressant activity

The antidepressant activity by m.pruriens in acute and chronic model of depression was studied psycho-pharmacological investigation Involved treatment (14 days) OF M prueiens is forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) in mice and olfactory bulbectomy in rats respectively with dose of mucuna (10-20 mg /kg) significantly enhanced the anti-depressant action of fluoxetine and bupropion in mice FST and TST respectively. Potentiation OF 5- hydroxytryptophan-induced head twitches response (in mice) and reversal of reserpine-induced hypothermia (rats) were observed at the Same dose level. Further, the behavior anomalies exhibited by olfactory bulbectomy  rat (OBX) were attenuated by chronic mucuna treatment as observed in open-field.

Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity

M.Pruriens was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic activity and found to produce a significant effect